Activities

12 – 21 May 2016

PTT Museum in the event “Museums of Serbia, ten days from 10 to 10”

PTT Museum will participate in the event “Museums of Serbia, ten days from 10 to 10” which will take place this year from May 12 to May 21. Central topic will be museums and local communities under the slogan “My museum, my city”. The audience will be able to enjoy for free in all planned programs during all ten days of the event, from 10 am to 10 pm.

PTT Museum visitors will be able to see a thematic exhibition “PTT traffic in World War II in occupied Serbia (1941–1945)” dedicated to the functioning of postal, telegraph and telephone traffic in occupied Serbia. The exhibition shows part of the rich documentary material from the period of World War II, illustrating how the PTT network was organised and how it functioned in terms of occupation, and what was the status of PTT officers and what were the problems they had to face while performing their duties.

Those interested will also be able to see the permanent exhibition “Meeting Point”; chronological review of the development of the post and telecommunications on the territory of Serbia since the First Serbian Uprising until today, with the exhibits from these fields (telegraphs, teleprinters, typewriters, scales, postal carriage, photographs and original documents).

Professional guidance through the permanent and thematic exhibition will be organized during the event every day at 12:00 and 17:00 hrs.

The following special programs are also prepared for visitors: Saturday, May 14 at 12.00 hrs children’s workshop “Write and send a letter to loved ones”; Wednesday, May 18 at 18.30 hrs Panel “Culture through post: First postal stamp of Serbia” (lecture and presentation of Predrag Antić, vice president of the Union of Philatelists of Serbia); Saturday, May 21, 12th European Night of Museums: giving special gifts to every hundredth and thousandth visitor.

During the event, visitors will have the opportunity to take a photo for a postal stamp with their image that will be applied to the post cards they will get as souvenirs.

27th April 2016

Computer Simulation and 3D Modelling of Original Tesla’s Patents

At the sixth panel in the series Culture by Post, dedicated to the life and work of Nikola Tesla, the visitors of the PTT Museum could see the computer simulation and 3D models of the original patents of the great Serbian scientist.

Vladan Vučković, professor of the Faculty of Electronics in Niš, gave a lecture on Nikola Tesla supported by a video presentation.

The panel audience were presented, in a chronological order, all the inventions made as a 3D simulation and modelled after the original artefacts from the Nikola Tesla Museum in Belgrade. The fountain from which all the project started was shown at the beginning, followed by Tesla’s works from the field of energy science, his remotely controlled boat and his laboratory in Colorado Springs. The second part of the presentation was the premiere of the Tesla’s Long Island laboratory in modern 3D technology.

Željko Sarić, the organiser of the panel series, announced an event to take place in July and commemorate Tesla’s birth - a ceremony with documentaries about the great scientist and the recording of the ballet performance titled Tesla and Catherine.

Vladan Vučković

Vladan Vučković

Željko Sarić

Željko Sarić

Visitors

Visitors

Visitors

Visitors

24th February 2016

On Life and Work of Nikola Tesla

The second panel dedicated to the ingenious Serbian scientist started with the small performance - Tesla’s lightnings and songs from the homeland of the big scientist, performed by the singing group “Plitvice” from Lika.

Snežana Petrović, Head of Director’s Office, said that the Post of Serbia, as a growing and developing profitable system and the most successful public enterprise with tradition longer than 175 years, apart from business challenges also takes care of the noble objectives of the wider society.

We support all what makes the essential part of our people’s identity, both in responsible and socially acceptable way. We remember and glorify great people and their works, which should serve to all of us as an example and as a guidepost. One hundred and sixtieth anniversary of Nikola Tesla’s birth is the occasion that allows us a better introduction to the works of the man without whose inventions today’s life would be unthinkable. At the same time, his personality was very complex, specific, and arouses great interest, both in Serbia and in the world”, Snežana Petrović pointed out.

Dr Milić Stojić, a professor at the School of Electrical Engineering in Belgrade, said that he dedicated his lecture on the occasion of the 160th anniversary of Nikola Tesla's birth to the influence and contribution of this genial scientist to the development of electrical science and engineering.

This is the year when we are celebrating Nikola Tesla, and on this occasion, many institutions in Serbia and the Republic of Srpska organise manifestations and lectures”, said Stojić, but also added that Tesla, for several hundreds of his inventions, is considered one of the greatest inventors of all the time.

“His greatest inventions are asynchronous motor as a groundbreaking contribution to the development of polyphase system of alternative currents which rules the entire world, and later of the development of the high-frequency signals and their use in the radio technology”, added Stojić.

Željko Sertić, the custodian of the PTT Museum and the organiser of the panel “Culture by Post”, said that the PE Post of Serbia, to which the PTT Museum belongs as well, initiated the panel that will include a series of lectures dedicated to the 160th anniversary of the birth of Nikola Tesla, while in May 2016 a series of lectures are planned on the occasion of the first postal stamp printing in Serbia.

Demonstration of the “Tesla’s Egg of Columbus” and the Tesla coil with spark gap was made by Radomir Putnik and Branislav Jovanović.

Vladan Vučković

Prof. dr Milić Stojić

Željko Sarić

Željko Sarić

Posetioci

Visitors

Posetioci

Mini performance

26th January 2016

Panel “Culture through post” in PTT museum dedicated to Nikola Tesla

Panel “Culture through post”, held on 26th January in PTT museum, was dedicated this time to the great Serbian scientist and inventor Nikola Tesla. Recording of the speech of the Mayor of New York, Fiorello La Guardia broadcasted on New York radio on 10th January 1943 in Tesla’s honour was played for the first time, together with video material on the chronology of Tesla’s life and work, and the video of carrying his casket into the Cathedral of Saint John the Divine in New York, which was ceded to the funeral service and burial.

Great number of visitors were greeted, in the name of Milan Krkobabić, Director of the Post of Serbia, by Snežana Petrović, Head of Director’s Office, who expressed her satisfaction that those interested were able to learn more about the life and work of Nikola Tesla and to be reminded of his great contribution to science and technology in the late 19th and early 20th century.

“73 years passed since the death of not only ours, but world known scientist, except his works make him live forever – he invented rotating magnetic field, poly-phase alternating current generator and complete system of production and distribution of electric energy, without which life today would be unimaginable. Post of Serbia, as a profitable system, which constantly grows and is the most successful public enterprise with the 175 year old tradition, seeks to support everything that makes an essential part of the identity of our country in a responsible and socially acceptable manner. That's why we're here tonight to pay tribute to a Serb who has left an indelible mark in the world, to celebrate and recognize the most important personalities”, said Snežana Petrović.

Director of “Nikola Tesla” museum Branimir Jovanović, PhD, expressed his gratitude for participating in this panel and added that the specificity of Tesla’s personality is still studied. “Tesla is a complex person who is, I would say, discovered not only by us every day, but by the whole world as well. His popularity is also proven by the great visit to the museum, and the fact that the biggest number of visitors are foreigners”, said Jovanović.

Željko Sarić, curator of PTT museum, pointed out that all scientists in the world study the work of Nikola Tesla and emphasised that this year, when we are marking 160 years since his birth, will be dedicated to this great scientist. He added that during 2016, once a month similar panels will be organised, that will cover a lot of interesting topics.

Branimir Jovanović

Branimir Jovanović

Snežana Petrović

Snežana Petrović

Ličani

Ličani

Visitors

Visitors

15th September - 15th October 2015

The exhibition "160 years of the telegraph in Serbia" in the Heritage Museum Aleksinac"

Exhibition of PTT Museum "160 years of the telegraph in Serbia" was opened on 15th September in Heritage Museum Aleksinac – Gallery of the Centre for Culture and Arts in Aleksinac, 15 Dušana Trivunca St.

The exhibition shows 79 exhibits illustrating the beginnings of telegraphy in Serbia (Morse’s telegraphic devices, relays, buttons, isolators) and original documents and photographs relating to the operation of postal and telegraph services in Aleksinac, which was an important border city in the 19th century, with post office, quarantine and customs.

Due to the importance of Aleksinac in that time, first telegraphic line for domestic and international traffic in Serbia was built between Aleksinac and Belgrade, as an important communication connection between Europe and the East.

In addition to the original exhibits, there are also 13 posters, with photographs and texts about the first telegraphic lines and the development of telegraphy in the 19th and 20th century, along with a review of relevant personalities from that area.

By the exhibition "160 years of the telegraph in Serbia" Post of Serbia marks an important date in the history of telegraphy which represents the earliest form of organized system of fast distance communication.

Telegraphic traffic was initiated by the first telegraph, which was sent from Kragujevac to Belgrade on 3rd April 1855 at 12:45. Only eight days later, the first dispatch was sent from Aleksinac to Belgrade, and after that telegraph stations were introduced also in Jagodina, Negotin, Smederevo, Knjaževac, Požarevac, Negotin, Šabac, Čačak... The exhibition will last until 15th October, and Museum working hours are from 8 to 20 hours

05th June – 30th September 2015

Exhibition "175 years of Serbian Post"

Exhibition "175 years of Serbian Post" of the PTT Museum marks a significant jubilee for the Post of Serbia, the system that has been a backbone and leader in technological and economic development of our country for 175 years.

On the soil of today’s Serbia letters have been transferred for two millenniums just for and in the name of government, but than Mihailo Obrenović, Serbian prince, signed a decree on opening the first post office in Belgrade. In that way every Serbian vassal was given a chance to enjoy advantages of public postal traffic.

Since May 25th 1840 (by the Julian calendar) every citizen was able to send his letter, under prearranged conditions, and the post office would transfer it to the recipient, at any place in Serbia. It was a step forward for civilization in the postal traffic, but also a democratization of a public service, because state traffic system was placed in service of the needs of every Serbian citizen.

The panels exhibited in the PTT Museum show the most important moments, relevant events in the development of our postal, telegraphic and telephone traffic. They are represented by illustrations (images, photos, documents) and with text, as descriptions of those events. Some showpieces from the exhibition could be explained in more details few meters further, in the Museum’s permanent exhibition "Meeting Point", or with the guide’s story.

Besides the most important events, the exhibition shows people who gave significant contribution to the development of Serbian post. Postal veterans are depicted by their images and their biographies.

9th – 18th May 2015

Museums of Serbia from 10 to 10

During the cultural event called “Museums of Serbia from 10 to 10” which takes place from 9 – 18 May 2015, PTT Museum will be opened for visitors from 10:00 to 22:00 with the following programme:

  • the permanent exhibition “Meeting Point”; chronological review of the development of the post and telecommunications on the territory of Serbia since the First Serbian Uprising until today, with the exhibits from these fields (telegraphs, teleprinters, typewriters, scales, postal carriage, photographs and original documents);
  • the thematic exhibition “160th Anniversary of the introduction of Telegraph Traffic in Serbia”;
  • visitors may take a photo and have it applied as a stamp on post cards they will get as souvenirs.

Every day during this event the professional guidance through the permanent exhibition is organized at 13:00 and 17:00, and the professional guidance through the thematic exhibition is at 14:00 and 18:00.

Special programmes:

  • 09. May, children’s workshop “Write and send a letter to the beloved ones” from 12:00 –13:00;
  • 12. May, from 19:00 – 20:00 the conservator will give a lecture on methods of perserving of cultural heritage (Željko Levnaić i Saša Živić);
  • 14. May, from 19:00 – 20:00 a lecture on preservation of the library fund (Gorica Škipina, a lecturer from the National Library of Serbia);
  • 16. May, the European Night of Museums;
    • professional guidance through the exhibition and the thematic exhibition;
    • giving special gifts to every hunderedth and every thousandth visitor;
    • a special concert of the cultural club “Đoka Pavlović” from 21:00 – 21:30;
  • 18. May, the International Museum Day: from 19:00 – 20:00 a lecture on stamps (“Srbijamarka“).

03rd April - 18th May 2015

Exhibition "160 years since the introduction of telegraph traffic in Serbia"

By the exhibition "160 years since the introduction of telegraph traffic in Serbia" PTT Museum marks a major anniversary of telegraphy (1855-2015), richly illustrating the development of an organized system of fast distance communication.

From 3 April to 18 May 2015, visitors to PTT museum will be able to see, a number of telegraph devices, from vintage to the new models (Morse’s, Hughes’ and Baudot’s telegraph), then parts for devices, buttons, relays, batteries, isolators, cables, original documents relating to legislation in this field, various decrees on the setting, telegraph forms, receipts, interesting photos of telegraphists and telegraph stations.

The introduction of the telegraph in Serbia in 1855.

The first telegraph in Serbia appeared only 11 years after the application in the world (in 1844 a telegraph line between Baltimore and Washington was established).

The idea of introducing public telegraph traffic in Serbia was born in 1854, on the one hand due to the satisfaction of internal economic needs by charging transit fees, on the other hand to meet certain European countries that were seeking the shortest connection with the East.

In 1854 Milivoje Petrovic-Blaznavac was sent to Vienna to purchase a telegraph device and engage experts. At the beginning of November a commissioner of Austrian telegraph administration Dr. Milicer and engineer Dr. Erasmus Klominek came to Serbia with necessary telegraph material. On the defined route Belgrade-Aleksinac and separation of lines from Jagodina to Kragujevac, poles have already been deployed and work crews began burying the poles and mounting wires. This line was built in less than four months and was 26 miles long.

Telegraph station in Belgrade first established connection with Zemun, which was part of Austria, and thus began the international telegraph traffic. The cables were coated on the poles, across the Sava. The traffic began to live on 17 March (old calendar) 1855. by a telegram, which arrived in Belgrade at exactly 17:05. Until then telegrams from Vienna to Belgrade were accepted in Zemun and traveled to Belgrade by boats. Connection with Austria went by line: Zemun-Petrovaradin-Szeged-Pest-Bratislava-Vienna.

The plan was to establish the first telegraph line in domestic traffic between Belgrade and Aleksinac. However, on the line with Jagodina there was a fault, so the first telegraph was sent from Kragujevac, on 3 April 1855 at 12:45, while on 11April, the first dispatch from Aleksinac to Belgrade was sent. This telegraph line went by line: Belgrade-Smederevo-Batocina-Bagrdan-Jagodina-Kragujevac-Razanj-Aleksinac. After Belgrade, Kragujevac and Aleksinac, telegraph stations were introduced also in Jagodina, Negotin, Smederevo, Pozarevac Knjazevac, Negotin, Sabac, Cacak, and then the other cities.

The first telegraph regulations and laws

The first telegraph regulations were adopted in May 1855 and were related to the protection of newly built telegraph lines. The very guardians of the line - the cops - were engaged earlier, in November 1854, and were tasked to patrol the lines, keep them safe and make necessary repairs. An order has been passed that the telegraph poles must be fenced with shrubs and thorns, so as not to be destroyed by the cattle.

Along with the preparatory work on raising the telegraph line, the auspices of the Ministry of internal affairs have taken measures to develop a special "Kaznitelni law" to protect telegraph facilities.

The first "Telegraficeski law" was adopted in January 1855.

"Nastavljenije za telegrafska nadlezateljstva" was adopted in April 1855.

Regulations were made by Dr. Milicer, and amended and translated into Serbian by Herkalovic, the Head of the Postal Department. According to these regulations, telegraphic service was held until 1868, when a new "Nastavljenije za telegrafske stacije" was issued.

The "Regulation on the sending of official dispatches on the Serbian telegraph lines" dates back from May 1856.

"Criminal (kaznitelni) Code of the Principality of Serbia", has been in force since 29 March 1860 and there are provisions on security of telegraph facilities in it.

The first complete telegraphic law was passed in 1867.

The introduction of Hughe’s and Baudot’s telegraphs

In 1891 in Serbia in public transport telegraph devices of Professor David Hughes were introduced. The telegraph had 28 buttons which were used to write out the letters directly to the paper.

The first courses were opened in Belgrade in 1888 and Niš in 1889 and the first trainings were kept by Vahram and Shahin. Later, the so-called "Hughes Schools" were opened for training.

Over the Hughes telegraph it could be dispatched from 120 to 160 characters per minute.

Belgrade, until 1914, maintained links with Pest, and occasionally with Niš, Sofia and Sarajevo over these devices.

Before the First World War the country had 485 Morse and 15 Hughes devices, and later acquired from the allies five more Hughes devices.

The significance of Baudot is that he invented a telegraph that could ship up to five telegrams at the same time.

On it there were up to four operators working, and the keypad was composed of five buttons. The importance of the Baudot is that he invented a code, later accepted as the "International Code No. 1", whose every character was a combination of five keys - codes. On admission, these signals were temporarily stored on the five electromagnets, then they were decoded and printed on tape, which greatly increased transfer speed.

Serbian government from Corfu, during the First World War, organized that our technicians go to France for training to work on these machines.

First Baudot sets were mounted in Belgrade in 1922 for connection with Italy, and the first course was led by Russian refugee Ceborarev. The first device was put into operation between Belgrade and Genoa, in 1923, and in 1938 the connection from Belgrade to Paris was established.

Over Baudot duplex set it could be transmitted up to 360 characters per minute, and over four-part set up to 720 characters.

During the Balkan wars and the First World War, our army used wireless telegraphy for military operations and liaison with the Allies, and in 1919 and 1924 the first radio-telegraph stations in the country started to work.

Telegraph devices in Serbia ceased to be used in the fifties of the 20th century; when they were completely replaced by teleprinters.

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